Juni gilt als Geburtsstunde des Marshallplans. Vor siebzig Jahren kündigte der damalige US-Außenminister George C. Marshall in einer Rede an der. Marshall in der Harvard-Universität zur Ankündigung des European Recovery Program, ERP. Berlin Schröder, Hans-Jürgen (Hrsg.): Marshallplan und. Der Marshallplan, offiziell European Recovery Program, war ein historisch bedeutendes Wirtschaftsförderungsprogramm der USA für den Wiederaufbau der Staaten Europas nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Der Marshallplan - Selling DemocracyDadurch hat es auch den umgangssprachlichen Namen Marshallplan erhalten. Offizielles Ziel des Marshallplans ist es, die Europäische Wirtschaft nach dem. Marshall in der Harvard-Universität zur Ankündigung des European Recovery Program, ERP. Berlin Schröder, Hans-Jürgen (Hrsg.): Marshallplan und. Der Marshallplan sollte die enorme wirtschaftliche Not nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg lindern. Das Dossier informiert über Entstehung, Entwicklung und.
Marshal Plan Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoWhat Was the Marshall Plan? - History
Food shortages were severe, especially in the harsh winter of — From July through June , the United States shipped It amounted to one-sixth of the American food supply and provided 35 trillion calories, enough to provide calories a day for one year to million people.
Especially damaged was transportation infrastructure, as railways, bridges, and docks had been specifically targeted by airstrikes, while much merchant shipping had been sunk.
Although most small towns and villages had not suffered as much damage, the destruction of transportation left them economically isolated.
None of these problems could be easily remedied, as most nations engaged in the war had exhausted their treasuries in the process.
The only major powers whose infrastructure had not been significantly harmed in World War II were the United States and Canada.
Much of the Marshall Plan aid would be used by the Europeans to buy manufactured goods and raw materials from the United States and Canada.
Most of Europe's economies were recovering slowly, as unemployment and food shortages led to strikes and unrest in several nations.
Italy and Belgium would follow by the end of In Germany in —46 housing and food conditions were bad, as the disruption of transport, markets, and finances slowed a return to normality.
In the West, the bombing had destroyed 5,, houses and apartments, and 12,, refugees from the east had crowded in. The drop in food production can be attributed to a drought that killed a major portion of the wheat crop while a severe winter destroyed the majority of the wheat crop the following year.
This caused most Europeans to rely on a 1, calorie per day diet. Industrial production fell more than half and reached pre-war levels at the end of While Germany struggled to recover from the destruction of the War, the recovery effort began in June , moving on from emergency relief.
The currency reform in was headed by the military government and helped Germany to restore stability by encouraging production.
The reform revalued old currency and deposits and introduced new currency. Taxes were also reduced and Germany prepared to remove economic barriers.
During the first three years of occupation of Germany, the UK and US vigorously pursued a military disarmament program in Germany , partly by removal of equipment but mainly through an import embargo on raw materials, part of the Morgenthau Plan approved by President Franklin D.
Nicholas Balabkins concludes that "as long as German industrial capacity was kept idle the economic recovery of Europe was delayed.
In the view of the State Department under President Harry S Truman , the United States needed to adopt a definite position on the world scene or fear losing credibility.
The emerging doctrine of containment as opposed to rollback argued that the United States needed to substantially aid non-communist countries to stop the spread of Soviet influence.
There was also some hope that the Eastern Bloc nations would join the plan, and thus be pulled out of the emerging Soviet bloc, but that did not happen.
In January , Truman appointed retired General George Marshall as Secretary of State. In July Marshall scrapped Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive , which was based on the Morgenthau Plan which had decreed "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany [or] designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy.
With a communist, although non-Soviet, insurgency threatening Greece, and Britain financially unable to continue its aid, the President announced his Truman Doctrine on March 12, , "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures", with an aid request for consideration and decision, concerning Greece and Turkey.
Herbert Hoover noted that "The whole economy of Europe is interlinked with German economy through the exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods.
The productivity of Europe cannot be restored without the restoration of Germany as a contributor to that productivity. The United States was already spending a great deal to help Europe recover.
Much of this aid was designed to restore infrastructure and help refugees. The United Nations also launched a series of humanitarian and relief efforts almost wholly funded by the United States.
These efforts had important effects, but they lacked any central organization and planning, and failed to meet many of Europe's more fundamental needs.
UNRRA provided billions of dollars of rehabilitation aid and helped about 8 million refugees. It ceased operation of displaced persons camps in Europe in ; many of its functions were transferred to several UN agencies.
After Marshall's appointment in January , administration officials met with Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and others to press for an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets in their occupied zone.
After six weeks of negotiations, Molotov rejected all of the American and British proposals. After the adjournment of the Moscow conference following six weeks of failed discussions with the Soviets regarding a potential German reconstruction, the United States concluded that a solution could not wait any longer.
To clarify the American position, a major address by Secretary of State George Marshall was planned. Marshall gave the address at Harvard University on June 5, He offered American aid to promote European recovery and reconstruction.
The speech described the dysfunction of the European economy and presented a rationale for US aid. The modern system of the division of labor upon which the exchange of products is based is in danger of breaking down.
Aside from the demoralizing effect on the world at large and the possibilities of disturbances arising as a result of the desperation of the people concerned, the consequences to the economy of the United States should be apparent to all.
It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health to the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace.
Our policy is not directed against any country, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Any government that is willing to assist in recovery will find full co-operation on the part of the United States.
Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.
Marshall was convinced that economic stability would provide political stability in Europe. He offered aid, but the European countries had to organize the program themselves.
The speech, written at Marshall's request and guidance by Charles Bohlen ,  contained virtually no details and no numbers.
More a proposal than a plan, it was a challenge to European leaders to cooperate and coordinate. It asked Europeans to create their own plan for rebuilding Europe, indicating the United States would then fund this plan.
The administration felt that the plan would likely be unpopular among many Americans, and the speech was mainly directed at a European audience.
In an attempt to keep the speech out of American papers, journalists were not contacted, and on the same day, Truman called a press conference to take away headlines.
In contrast, Dean Acheson , an Under Secretary of State, was dispatched to contact the European media, especially the British media, and the speech was read in its entirety on the BBC.
British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin heard Marshall's radio broadcast speech and immediately contacted French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault to begin preparing a quick European response to and acceptance of the offer, which led to the creation of the Committee of European Economic Co-operation.
The two agreed that it would be necessary to invite the Soviets as the other major allied power. Marshall's speech had explicitly included an invitation to the Soviets, feeling that excluding them would have been a sign of distrust.
State Department officials, however, knew that Stalin would almost certainly not participate and that any plan that would send large amounts of aid to the Soviets was unlikely to get Congressional approval.
Speaking at the Paris Peace Conference on October 10, Molotov had already stated Soviet fears: "If American capital was given a free hand in the small states ruined and enfeebled by the war [it] would buy up the local industries, appropriate the more attractive Rumanian, Yugoslav Initially, Stalin maneuvered to kill the Plan, or at least hamper it by means of destructive participation in the Paris talks regarding conditions.
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov left Paris, rejecting the plan. On July 12, a larger meeting was convened in Paris. Every country of Europe was invited, with the exceptions of Spain a World War II neutral that had sympathized with the Axis powers and the small states of Andorra , San Marino , Monaco , and Liechtenstein.
The Soviet Union was invited with the understanding that it would likely refuse. The states of the future Eastern Bloc were also approached, and Czechoslovakia and Poland agreed to attend.
In one of the clearest signs and reflections of tight Soviet control and domination over the region, Jan Masaryk , the foreign minister of Czechoslovakia, was summoned to Moscow and berated by Stalin for considering Czechoslovakia's possible involvement with and joining of the Marshall Plan.
The Marshall Plan participants were not surprised when the Czechoslovakian and Polish delegations were prevented from attending the Paris meeting.
The other Eastern Bloc states immediately rejected the offer. The Soviet Union's "alternative" to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with western Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan , and later, the Comecon.
In a speech to the United Nations, Soviet deputy foreign minister Andrei Vyshinsky said that the Marshall Plan violated the principles of the United Nations.
He accused the United States of attempting to impose its will on other independent states, while at the same time using economic resources distributed as relief to needy nations as an instrument of political pressure.
Although all other Communist European Countries had deferred to Stalin and rejected the aid, the Yugoslavs, led by Josip Broz Tito , at first went along and rejected the Marshall Plan.
However, in Tito broke decisively with Stalin on other issues, making Yugoslavia an independent communist state. Yugoslavia requested American aid.
American leaders were internally divided, but finally agreed and began sending money on a small scale in , and on a much larger scale in — The American aid was not part of the Marshall Plan.
In late September, the Soviet Union called a meeting of nine European Communist parties in southwest Poland.
Referring to the Eastern Bloc, the report stated that "the Red Army's liberating role was complemented by an upsurge of the freedom-loving peoples' liberation struggle against the fascist predators and their hirelings.
Although the Eastern Bloc countries except Czechoslovakia had immediately rejected Marshall Plan aid, Eastern Bloc communist parties were blamed for permitting even minor influence by non-communists in their respective countries during the run up to the Marshall Plan.
Italian and French communist leaders were prevented by party rules from pointing out that it was actually Stalin who had directed them not to take opposition stances in Congress, under the control of conservative Republicans, agreed to the program for multiple reasons.
The member conservative isolationist Senate wing of the party, based in the rural Midwest and led by Senator Kenneth S.
Wherry R-Nebraska , was outmaneuvered by the emerging internationalist wing, led by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg R-Michigan. The opposition argued that it made no sense to oppose communism by supporting the socialist governments in Western Europe; and that American goods would reach Russia and increase its war potential.
They called it "a wasteful 'operation rat-hole'"  Vandenberg, assisted by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
R-Massachusetts admitted there was no certainty that the plan would succeed, but said it would halt economic chaos, sustain Western civilization, and stop further Soviet expansion.
Senator Robert A. Taft R-Ohio hedged on the issue. He said it was without economic justification; however, it was "absolutely necessary" in "the world battle against communism.
Congress reflected public opinion, which resonated with the ideological argument that communism flourishes in poverty.
Truman's own prestige and power had been greatly enhanced by his stunning victory in the election. Across America, multiple interest groups, including business, labor, farming, philanthropy, ethnic groups, and religious groups, saw the Marshall Plan as an inexpensive solution to a massive problem, noting it would also help American exports and stimulate the American economy as well.
Major newspapers were highly supportive, including such conservative outlets as Time magazine. Vandenberg made sure of bipartisan support on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
The Solid Democratic South was highly supportive, the upper Midwest was dubious, but heavily outnumbered. The plan was opposed by conservatives in the rural Midwest, who opposed any major government spending program and were highly suspicious of Europeans.
Wallace , the former Vice President. He said the Plan was hostile to the Soviet Union, a subsidy for American exporters, and sure to polarize the world between East and West.
The appointment of the prominent businessman Paul G. Hoffman as director reassured conservative businessmen that the gigantic sums of money would be handled efficiently.
Turning the plan into reality required negotiations among the participating nations. Sixteen nations met in Paris to determine what form the American aid would take, and how it would be divided.
The negotiations were long and complex, with each nation having its own interests. France's major concern was that Germany not be rebuilt to its previous threatening power.
The Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg , despite also suffering under the Nazis, had long been closely linked to the German economy and felt their prosperity depended on its revival.
Truman on April 3, Aid was originally offered to almost all the European countries, including those under military occupation by the Soviet Union.
The Soviets early on withdrew from participation in the plan, however, and were soon followed by the other eastern European nations under their influence.
This left the following countries to participate in the plan: Austria , Belgium , Denmark , France , Greece , Iceland , Ireland , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands , Norway , Portugal , Sweden , Switzerland , Turkey , the United Kingdom , and western Germany.
Under Paul G. Direct grants accounted for the vast majority of the aid, with the remainder in the form of loans. To coordinate the European participation, 16 countries, led by the United Kingdom and France, established the Committee of European Economic Cooperation to suggest a four-year recovery program.
This organization was later replaced by the permanent Organisation for European Economic Co-operation OEEC , to which West Germany was ultimately admitted.
The Marshall Plan was very successful. Reports provided to Marshall suggested that some regions of the continent were on the brink of famine because agricultural and other food production had been disrupted by the fighting.
In fact, it could easily be argued that the only world power not structurally affected by the conflict had been the United States. The reconstruction coordinated under the Marshall Plan was formulated following a meeting of the participating European states in the latter half of Notably, invitations were extended to the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
However, they refused to join the effort, allegedly fearing U. President Harry Truman signed the Marshall Plan on April 3, , and aid was distributed to 16 European nations, including Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, West Germany and Norway.
The Marshall Plan provided aid to the recipients essentially on a per capita basis, with larger amounts given to major industrial powers, such as West Germany, France and Great Britain.
This was based on the belief of Marshall and his advisors that recovery in these larger nations was essential to overall European recovery.
Still, not all participating nations benefitted equally. Nations such as Italy, who had fought with the Axis powers alongside Nazi Germany, and those who remained neutral e.
In all, Great Britain received roughly one-quarter of the total aid provided under the Marshall Plan, while France was given less than one fifth of the funds.
Interestingly, in the decades since its implementation, the true economic benefit of the Marshall Plan has been the subject of much debate.
Indeed, reports at the time suggest that, by the time the plan took effect, Western Europe was already well on the road to recovery. And, despite the significant investment on the part of the United States, the funds provided under the Marshall Plan accounted for less than 3 percent of the combined national incomes of the countries that received them.
This led to relatively modest growth of GDP in these countries during the four-year period the plan was in effect.
Politically, however, the legacy of the Marshall Plan arguably tells a different story. Given the refusal to participate on the part of the so-called Eastern Bloc of Soviet states, the initiative certainly reinforced divisions that were already beginning to take root on the continent.
Some historians and economists attribute great success to it, while others, such as Tyler Cowen, claim the plan had little effect and it was simply the local restoration of sound economic policy and an end to vast warfare which caused the rebound.
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He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. Viele Städte waren zerstört und die Infrastruktur stark beschädigt. Die Demontage von Industrieanlagen und die Ausfuhr von Kohle zu Entschädigungszwecken verschärften die Probleme, weil so dringend benötigte Güter für den Wiederaufbau bzw.
Bereits sahen sich die USA gezwungen, die ehemaligen Kriegsgegner mit Hilfsgütern GARIOA zu versorgen. Hungerwinter , die Versorgung in vielen deutschen Städten zusammen.
Dieses führte zu einem Umdenken der Amerikaner und Briten bei der Besatzungspolitik. Ende Mai stellten die USA die Reparationslieferungen aus ihrer Zone an die Sowjetunion ein.
In diesem Wahlsieg zeigt sich die Ungeduld und Frustration der Bevölkerung nach dem gewonnenen "Volkskrieg". Die Labour-Regierung setzte in den folgenden Jahren umfangreiche Reformen, wie die Gründung des National Health Service und der Verstaatlichung von Industriezweigen, um.
Da die noch auf den Krieg ausgerichtete Wirtschaft kaum für den Export produzierte, war das Land kaum in der Lage seine Schulden zu bedienen.
Als die USA im August seine Kreditzahlung faktisch stoppte, stand das Land kurz vor der Zahlungsunfähigkeit. In Frankreich und Italien brachte die Armut der Nachkriegsära den kommunistischen Parteien, die auch eine wichtige Rolle in den Widerstandsbewegungen gespielt hatten, Zulauf.
Dazu stand die provisorische Regierung unter de Gaulle vor erheblichen Problemen. Nach der vier Jahre dauernden Besetzung Frankreichs durch Deutschland musste das Land neu aufgebaut und eine Verfassung erarbeitet werden.
Im Januar erklärte de Gaulle wegen Konflikten mit der sozialistischen Mehrheit in der Nationalversammlung seinen Rücktritt.
Bis folgten ihm drei weitere Ministerpräsidenten. Ähnlich instabil war die Lage in Italien. Obwohl die Möglichkeit, dass Frankreich und Italien kommunistisch hätten werden können, heute von Historikern als gering angesehen wird,  sahen einige Politiker der Westmächte darin eine reale Bedrohung und den Marshallplan als mögliche Abhilfe.
Die Vereinigten Staaten gingen als einziges Land gestärkt aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg hervor. Das Land hatte keine Kriegszerstörungen zu verkraften. Zudem erlebten die USA während des Zweiten Weltkrieges einen Wirtschaftsboom, da sehr viele Kriegsgüter dort produziert wurden.
Die Umstellung der Wirtschaft nach dem Krieg auf Güter für den privaten Konsum war allerdings nicht unproblematisch, da die Absatzmärkte in Europa wegbrachen.
Vor allem von Seiten der Republikaner gab es Forderungen nach einer Rückkehr zum Isolationismus. Der demokratische Präsident Truman war hingegen der Ansicht, die USA müssten ihre weltpolitische Verantwortung wahrnehmen.
Die Angst vor dem Kommunismus war allerdings auch bei den Republikanern weit verbreitet. Als ein Wendepunkt und damit auch der Beginn des Kalten Krieges wird häufig die Rede des amerikanischen Präsidenten am März gesehen.
In der Rede versprach er allen "freien Völkern" Unterstützung gegen Umsturzversuche durch die Sowjetunion.
Anlass war die Situation in Griechenland und der Türkei, wo die Sowjetunion versuchte ihren Einflusssphäre auszubauen. Aufgrund der einsetzenden finanziellen Hilfen durch die USA gelang dies der UdSSR nicht.
Ein Richtungswechsel in der amerikanischen Deutschlandpolitik deutete sich bereits am 6. Byrnes , der sog. Hoffnungsrede , in Stuttgart an. Unmittelbar nach seiner Rückkehr aus Moskau beauftragte er George F.
Kennan die Grundzüge eines Aufbauprogramms auszuarbeiten. Im Rahmen der Containment-Politik musste verhindert werden, dass die Sowjetunion ihren Einfluss auf die westlichen Besatzungszonen in Deutschland und Österreich ausdehnte.The Marshall Plan was a U.S.-sponsored program implemented following World War II to aid European countries that had been destroyed as a result of the war. It was laid out by U.S. Secretary of. Initially announced in , the Marshall Plan was a U.S.-sponsored economic-aid program to help Western European countries recover following World War II. Officially named the European Recovery Program (ERP), it soon became known as the Marshall Plan for its creator, Secretary of State George C. Marshall. The Marshall Plan was a massive program of aid from the United States to sixteen western and southern European countries, aimed at helping economic renewal and strengthening democracy after the devastation of World War II. It was started in and was officially known as the European Recovery Program, or ERP, but is more commonly known as the Marshall Plan, after the man who announced it, US Secretary of State George C. Marshall. The Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program, was a U.S. program providing aid to Western Europe following the devastation of World War II. Marshall Plan Payments in Millions to European Economic Cooperation Countries from April 3, to June 30, (Color chart) Mutual Security Agency Monthly Report – Data from April 3, , the date of enactment of the Economic Cooperation Act (The Marshall Plan), to June 30,